MAKING-CITY partners established a list of 20 PED indicators

MAKING-CITY partners established a list of 20 PED indicators

Submitted in May 2020, the MAKING-CITY deliverable D5.2 – Project level indicators highlights the set of Positive Energy District (PED) Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that will be used as high-level metrics to evaluate the performance and impacts of the technical and non-technical solutions implemented in Oulu and Groningen, the two MAKING-CITY lighthouse cities. In total, 20 KPIs were selected from the following five main categories:

  • Energy and environment
  • Mobility
  • Economy
  • System flexibility
  • Social and residents

The PED KPIs will evaluate actions made in the demo areas on short and medium term and integrated into the energy and sustainability planning. The starting points for selecting PED KPIs were the analysis of the scope, the MAKING-CITY project’s objectives and target groups, what type of indicators are actually needed to keep track on the performance of the PED areas, and what is most relevant in these particular cases. Moreover, the most relevant indicators part of reference frameworks such as Smart Cities Information System (SCIS) and CITYkeys have been considered and selected when appropriate to set up the following 20 MAKING-CITY PED KPIs:



1 – Final energy consumption Annual final energy consumption divided for all uses and forms of energy (electricity/thermal/gas). Transportation and public lighting excluded. Buildings combined to area level. No separate apartments reported. Monitoring on the building level, but final KPI on PED area level. Final energy used in buildings defined as in the Building Energy Specification (BEST) tables: electricity for lighting, ventilation, space heating and cooling, hot water, for heat: heating, cooling and domestic hot water
2 – Primary energy consumption This indicator corresponds with the primary energy consumed inside the PED boundaries that is the energy forms found in nature (e.g. coal, oil, gas, biomass, nuclear, wind, solar, hydro) which have to be converted (often with subsequent losses) to useable forms of energy. Excluding transportation and public lighting.
3 – Energy imported to PED The amount of electricity, thermal energy (district heating) and other energy sources (e.g. gas) imported to the demonstration area from outside the PED boundaries.
4 – Energy exported from PED The amount of electricity and thermal energy exported outside the PED boundaries from the demonstration area.
5 – Renewable energy sources production Amount of renewables production inside PED boundaries, and share (compared to final energy consumption in the area.) Divided into electricity (solar) and thermal energy (including geothermal, waste/excess heat etc. energy produced with heat pumps).
6 – PED energy balance The overall primary energy balance of the PED area considering demand-consumption, energy flows, storage, renewables.
7 – Energy savings in the PED Total annual saved primary energy in the PED compared to situation without any interventions (baseline).
8 – Greenhouse gas emissions The GHG emissions (converted to CO2-eq.) generated over a calendar year by the same activities included in the primary energy related KPIs inside the PED boundaries
9 – Reduction of emissions Reduction of CO2-eq. emissions in the PED area achieved by the project actions and interventions.
10 – Number of public electric vehicles charging stations Number of electric vehicles charging stations inside the PED that are available for the public use.
11 – Energy delivered for electric vehicles charging Energy consumption (energy delivered) by the electric vehicles charging stations in PED, and if available, the total number of charges, or the total charging time.
12 – Total investments How much money is invested in total to PED interventions (entire development units). Subdivision of the sources (EU funding, (local) government funding, private investment by companies and other private investment.
13 – Payback time Economic payback period of investments (comprehensive system or unit, not single intervention).
14 – Economic value of savings Total investments combined with the output results (in terms of energy savings or reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq.)) on a project level, this KPI tells something about the effectiveness per saved amount of (primary) energy / reduced emissions, or contribution into new energy generation.
15 – System flexibility for energy players Flexibility of the whole energy system in PED by means of smart solutions. Demand response management and smart controls for the energy system. Additional flexibility capacity gained for energy players. KPI measures the progress brought by R&I activities relative to the new clusters and functional objectives, assessing the additional electrical power that can be modulated in the selected framework, such as the connection of new renewable generation, to enhance an interconnection, to solve congestion, or even all the transmission capacity of a transmission operator system (TSO).
16 – Renewables storage usage The combined usage of energy storage capacity in the PED area. The aim is to increase energy system flexibility with local energy storages for electricity and heat.
17 – Peak load reduction The indicator is used to analyse the maximum power demand of a system in comparison with the average power. With the correct application of ICT systems, the peak load can be reduced on a high extent and therefore the dimension of the supply system. E.g., Peak load is the maximum power consumption of a building or a group of buildings to provide certain comfort levels.
18 – Energy poverty Percentage of households by definition (described further in the Annex), or energy bill as % of total household disposable income.
19 – Consciousness of residents Increased consciousness of residents of the area on the defined issues (project interventions, energy, environment, climate, personal/communal consumption, carbon footprint and handprint, etc.).
20 – Resident engagement / empowerment to climate conscious actions Appreciation of the benefits of project actions and interventions; Energy empowerment at home and in the community, engagement of residents to energy saving related actions, satisfaction and happiness of people towards the project.